AminoActiv® Mechanism of Action (MOA):
The active ingredients of AminoActiv® have been shown to produce anti-inflammatory responses. This effect was initially identified in subjects that were taking the compound for other reasons, but who noticed a decrease in tissue and joint soreness in both related and unrelated indications.
These reports motivated laboratory research to further assess efficacy of the compound as a pain reliever. In the subsequent research, it was discovered that AminoActiv® could prevent prostaglandin production and release from cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory properties were effectively equivalent to those observed with ibuprofen — a popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) found in both prescription and over the counter pain medications.
The effects of AminoActiv® on inflammation and prostaglandin production continue to be studied, but initial assessment indicates that efficacy is related to the stabilization of mitochondrial membranes. Stabilized mitochondria are less susceptible to damage and injury and/or recover from damage or injury more rapidly. Reported in a recent article in “Arthritis and Rheumatism” (Volume 58. page 2409, 2008) — “… damage to the mitochondria of human chondrocyte cells results in increased levels of prostaglandin production.”
This is important in that recent inflammation research supports mitochondrial dysfunction as the central (common) pathway for inflammation. Thus, anything that stabilizes mitochondrial function is key to preventing cellular inflammation. This central hypothesis has gained increased acceptance in the classical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and many other medical indications.
The oxidation of lipids and proteins in the body to form free oxygen radicals also has a major impact on inducing inflammatory reactions in tissue (Review: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 97(3):234-254, 2007). An increased level of free oxygen radicals in tissue will ultimately lead to cellular dysfunction, and result in both acute and chronic localized inflammation. Continued accumulation of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause this process to progress until the inflammation itself causes cellular damage and tissue injury resulting in more inflammation and pain.
A key location for generating ROS is the mitochondria (Review: Journal of Investigative Dermatology 124:443-452, 2005). When the mitochondria become damaged from ROS, one of the by-products is the formation of lipid free radicals in the mitochondrial membrane, which results in a cascade of chemical and enzyme messengers that generate the formation and release of prostaglandins, which cause inflammation and pain.
Initial scientific assessment indicates that AminoActiv®’s ability to increase the stability of the mitochondria allows natural resistance to the pro-inflammatory events that otherwise lead to a loss of mitochondrial membrane function, and also lead to the formation and release of prostaglandins. By stabilizing and preventing the inflammatory cascade at the start, as opposed to inhibiting the COX enzyme pathways (as is the mode of action of many NSAIDs), AminoActiv® is able to prevent the sequence of cellular inflammatory events which otherwise culminate in the release of prostaglandins and other lipid mediators of cell injury. This MOA allows AminoActiv to have the therapeutic equivalence of NSAIDs for relieving and/or preventing inflammation and pain, but without the negative side effects of NSAID’s (organ toxicity, gastro-intestinal ulceration /bleeding impedance of protein synthesis, etc.).
Finally, certain amino acid ingredients in AminoActiv® are important components for (and/or contribute to) optimal functional operation of mammalian cells. They specifically support the replenishment of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within the cell — which is important because ATP provides the energy (or “fuel”) for all cells to “work” and function properly (note: ATP provides functional energy, not stimulant energy). During normal or excessive cellular activity, cellular stores of ATP are depleted. Thus, the ability to regenerate ATP is critical in order for cells to recover, regenerate, and maintain optimal cellular function. Additionally, these compounds are important to all cells in maintaining the integrity of the mitochondria — which are the aforementioned organelles found within the cell that are a critical part of the cell’s function.